Our paper has been accepted at IEEE S&P 2022.

The recent wave of in-browser cryptojacking has ebbed away, due to the new updates of mainstream cryptocurrrencies, which demand the level of mining resources browsers cannot afford. As replacements, resource-rich, loosely protected free Internet services, such as Continuous Integration (CI) platforms, have become attractive targets. In this paper, we report a systematic study on real-world illicit cryptomining on public CI platforms (called Cijacking). Unlike in-browser cryptojacking, Cijacks masquerade as CI jobs and are therefore more difficult to detect, since legitimate CI workflows such as container image building and testing also entail intensive computing. In our research, we leveraged the critical mining information the adversary has to specify, such as wallet addresses and mining pool domains, to recover the attack traces from GitHub repositories and the log files on CI platforms, leading to the discovery of 1,974 Cijacking instances, 30 campaigns across 12 different cryptocurrencies on 11 mainstream CI platforms. Further, our study unveils the evolution of attack strategies, in response to the protection put in place by the platforms, the duration of the mining jobs (as long as 33 months), and their lifecycle. Further discovered is the revenue of the attack, over $20,000 per month.

Since robust detection of cryptojacking is known to be hard, we developed a novel technique, called Cijitter, to strategically inject delays to the execution of a CI workflow to disproportionally penalize the mining jobs that need to work on a series of tasks under time constraints. Our analysis and evaluation, as conducted on both benchmarks and common CI jobs, show that our approach substantially suppresses the miner’s revenues, rendering them unprofitable, but only has small impacts on the performance of CI jobs and developer productivity (94.3% of CI jobs see a less than 10% delay).